Muhammed Zafar Iqbal booksMuhammed Zafar Iqbal is a Bangladeshi Physicist. He and Hasibul Ahsan are collaborating to find the unified field theory of physics. They are known to each other for long time.
Humayon Ahmed was a brother of him. Muhammed Zafar Iqbal is a writer and public speaker. He published many science fiction books.
Muhammed Zafar Iqbal (pronounced [muɦɔmmɔd dʒafor ikbal]; born 23 December 1952) is a Bangladeshi science fiction writer, physicist, academic and activist. He is a professor of computer science and engineering at Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST). As of January 2018, he is the superintendent of Electrical and Electronic Engineering department.
Iqbal was born on 23 December 1952 in Sylhet of the then East Pakistan. His father, Faizur Rahman Ahmed, was a police officer who was killed in the Liberation War of Bangladesh. His mother was Ayesha Akhter Khatun. He has spent his childhood in distinct parts of Bangladesh because of the transferring nature of his father's job. His elder brother, Humayun Ahmed, was a writer and filmmaker . His younger brother, Ahsan Habib, is a cartoonist who is serving as the editor of the satirical magazine, Unmad. He has three sisters - Sufia Haider, Momtaz Shahid and Rukhsana Ahmed.
Iqbal passed the SSC exam from Bogra Zilla School in 1968 and the HSC exam from Dhaka College in 1970. He graduated in physics from the University of Dhaka in 1976 and then went to the University of Washington to recieve his Ph.D. in 1982.
After obtaining his PhD degree, Iqbal served as a post-doctoral researcher at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) from 1983 to 1988 (mainly on Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics). He then was appointed in Bell Communications Research (Bellcore), a separate corporation from the Bell Labs (now Telcordia Technologies), as a research scientist. He left the institute in 1994.
Upon returning to Bangladesh, Iqbal joined the faculty of the CSE department at SUST. Iqbal serves as the vice president of Bangladesh Mathematical Olympiad committee. He played a leading role in establishing the Bangladesh Mathematical Olympiad and popularized mathematics among Bangladeshi youths at local and international level. In 2011, he won the Rotary SEED Award for his contribution in the field of education.
On 26 November 2013, Iqbal and his wife professor Haque applied for resignation soon after the university authority had withheld the combined admission test for the SUST and Jessore Science & Technology University. However they withdrew their resignation letters on the next day after the authority finally decided to go on with holding combined admission tests.
Perihelion shift of mercuryPlanetary orbits and the perihelium shift To find a planetary orbit, the variational problem δ ∫ ds = 0 has to be solved. This is equivalent with the problem δ ∫ ds2 = δ ∫ gijdxidxj = 0. Substituting the external Schwarzschild metric gives for a planetary orbit:
du dϕ d 2u dϕ2 + u = du dϕ 3mu + m h 2
where u := 1/r and h = r 2ϕ˙ =constant. The term 3mu is not present in the classical solution. This term can in the classical case also be found with a potential V (r) = − κM r 1 + h 2 r 2 .
The orbital equation gives r =constant as solution, or can, after dividing by du/dϕ, be solved with perturbation theory. In zeroth order, this results in an elliptical orbit: u0(ϕ) = A + B cos(ϕ) with
A = m/h2 and B an arbitrary constant. In first order, this becomes: u1(ϕ) = A + B cos(ϕ − εϕ) + ε A + B2 2A − B2 6A cos(2ϕ)
where ε = 3m2/h2 is small. The perihelion of a planet is the point for which r is minimal, or u maximal. This is the case if cos(ϕ − εϕ) = 0 ⇒ ϕ ≈ 2πn(1 + ε). For the perihelion shift then follows:
CosmologyIf for the universe as a whole is assumed: 1. There exists a global time coordinate which acts as x 0 of a Gaussian coordinate system,
2. The 3-dimensional spaces are isotrope for a certain value of x 0 ,
3. Each point is equivalent to each other point for a fixed x 0
then the Robertson-Walker metric can be derived for the line element: ds2 = −c 2 dt2 + R2 (t) r 2 0 1 − kr2 4r 2 0 (dr2 + r 2 dΩ 2 )
For the scalefactor R(t) the following equations can be derived: 2R¨ R + R˙ 2 + kc2 R2 = − 8πκp c 2 and R˙ 2 + kc2 R2 = 8πκ̺
where p is the pressure and ̺ the density of the universe. For the deceleration parameter q follows from this: q = − RR¨ R˙ 2 = 4πκ̺ 3H2
where H = R/R ˙ is Hubble’s constant. This is a measure of the velocity of which galaxies far away are moving away of each other, and has the value ≈ (75 ± 25) km·s −1 ·Mpc−1
. This gives 3 possible conditions of the universe (here, W is the total amount of energy in the universe):
1. Parabolical universe: k = 0, W = 0, q = 1 2
. The expansion velocity of the universe → 0 if t → ∞. The hereto related density ̺c = 3H2/8πκ is the critical density.
2. Hyperbolical universe: k = −1, W < 0, q < 1
2 . The expansion velocity of the universe remains positive forever.
3. Elliptical universe: k = 1, W > 0, q > 1
2 . The expansion velocity of the universe becomes negative after some time: the universe starts falling together
Borel functional calculusThe 'scope' here means the kind of function of an operator which is allowed. It is related to functional analyis which deals with function of a function.
First We need to understand indicator function 1(E). Indicator function 1(E) is a function defined on a set E , that indicates membership of element in the subset A of X , having value 1 for all elements of X that are in set A and 0 for all elements of X not in A.
Resolution of the IdentityLet T be a self-adjoint operator. If E is a Borel subset of R, and 1(E) is the indicator function of E, then 1E(T) is a self-adjoint projection on H. Then mapping
Ω : E -> 1(E) [T]. is a projection-valued measure called the resolution of the identity for the self adjoint operator T.
The measure of R with respect to Ω is the identity operator on H. In other words, the identity operator can be expressed as the spectral integral I = ∫1dΩ This special kind of caluculus is frequently used in perturbation theory of quantum mechanics.
Dirac equationOne of the most revolutionay equations in science is dirac equation. This equation is the relativistic Schrodinger equation. It predicted that anti-matter existed and experiement successfully carried out to find it. The mathematical form is :
The solution of this equation is the spinor which is a four component wave function. The derivation is somewhat complicated. You can follow here.
"When all the measurements and theory agree its boring , Disagreement gives us someting to talk about.."
Expectation valueIn quantum mechanics we deal with expectation values. Expectation value is the average value of some variable ( here operator). Erhenfest theorem says that expectation value obeys classical laws:
Humayun Ahmed ([ɦumaijun aɦmed]; 13 November 1948 – 19 July 2012) was a Bangladeshi writer, dramatist, screenwriter, filmmaker, songwriter, scholar, and lecturer. He was a brother of Muhammed Zafar Iqbal. His breakthrough was his debut novel Nondito Noroke published in 1972. He wrote over 200 fiction and non-fiction books, many of which were bestsellers in Bangladesh. His books were the top sellers at the Ekushey Book Fair during the 1990s and 2000s. He achieved the Bangla Academy Literary Award in 1981 and the Ekushey Padak in 1994 for his contribution to Bengali literature.
In the early 1990s, Ahmed emerged as a filmmaker. He went on to make a total of eight films - each based on his own novels. He received six Bangladesh National Film Awards in different categories for the films Daruchini Dwip, Aguner Poroshmoni and Ghetuputra Komola.
The February Revolution (Russian: Февра́льская револю́ция, IPA: [fʲɪvˈralʲskəjə rʲɪvɐˈlʲutsɨjə], tr. Fevrálʹskaya revolyútsiya), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution and sometimes as the March Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
The main events of the revolution took place in and near Petrograd (present-day Saint Petersburg), the then-capital of Russia, where long-standing discontent and cmmotion with the monarchy erupted into mass protests against food rationing on 23 February Old Style (8 March New Style). Revolutionary activity lasted about eight days, involving mass demonstrations and violent armed clashes with police and gendarmes, the last loyal forces of the Russian monarchy. On 27 February O.S. (12 March N.S.) mutinous Russian Army forces sided with the revolutionaries. Three days later Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, ending Romanov dynastic rule and the Russian Empire. A Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov replaced the Council of Ministers of Russia.
Every year in DU book fair is arranged by Bangla Academy. It is one of the biggest yearly display of books written by various authors and scholars. Many people visit
the book fair to buy books and other things. It becomes very crowded at certain time of the day. I always go there everytime it is held. I usually by science books.
I do not like science-fiction. Many youths of our country are being inclined to write sci-fi books rather than science books. This is rather very surprising and
at the same time very frustating. We are a nation of great pride and our education system is not so bad. We should be very devoted to write actual science related
books. I must mention USA and UK where there are such practises. Scientists and authors of USA and UK are making everybody aware of science and at the same time
earning a great deal of money. Why will we be sparing such opportunity? After all we are not so ignorant and uneducated. We should compete with them.
My purpose of writing this page and building this website is to make every everybody aware of our guts and ability. We should not be dominated by them.
We will be selling rich woman's fat asses back to them. We can write popular books like them. Book fair is such a festival which should be held on monthly basis.
Muhammed zafar iqbal is a Muhammed zafar Iqbal is a Muhammed Zafar Iqbal is a Bangladeshi scientist.
I have been to book fair many times. Our book fair is not giving our country anything new when it comes to popularizing science. Not a single writer dares to write popular science books. It has become very bad tradition. All are inclined to science fictions. This kind of thinking has a high price to pay in the near future. I have already said without scientific knowledge the country can not go far.
Science in our country
Professor Satyendra Nath Bose is well known for his works in quantum mechanics, provided the foundation for Bose–Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose–Einstein condensate. Science and technology began in Bangladesh in the period of British ruling. Major institutes like Dhaka university was established and many departments were opened for scientific study.
The economic and other discriminations towards East Pakistan and extensive investments in militarisation by the central Government of Pakistan led to a slow growth in the positive development of science and technology in the period before liberation war. Since then the development got a slow pace which has not been improved much. There are many causes of this slow progress. First and foremost is our social and religious belief system. Our society is too conservative as to the progress of science. Our parents want their children to be engineers and doctors but not scientist. We are not breaking out from this bad and parochial thinking. Prejudices harming us from the very beginning. Why can't we free ourselve? Our neighbor India is way ahead of us in scientific development. Unless science and technology are improved our fate is not going to change. Russia, USA , UK have changed their fate.
The core concept of general-relativistic model-building is that of a solution of Einstein's equations. Given both Einstein's equations and suitable equations for the properties of matter, such a solution consists of a specific semi-Riemannian manifold (usually defined by giving the metric in specific coordinates), and specific matter fields defined on that manifold. Matter and geometry must satisfy Einstein's equations, so in particular, the matter's energy–momentum tensor must be divergence-free. The matter must, of course, also satisfy whatever additional equations were imposed on its properties. In short, such a solution is a model universe that satisfies the laws of general relativity, and possibly additional laws governing whatever matter might be present.
Einstein's equations are nonlinear partial differential equations and, as such, difficult to solve exactly. Nevertheless, a number of exact solutions are known, although only a few have direct physical applications. The best-known exact solutions, and also those most intriguing from a physics point of view, are the Schwarzschild solution, the Reissner–Nordström solution and the Kerr metric, each pointing to a certain type of black hole in an otherwise empty universe, and the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker and de Sitter universes, each describing an expanding cosmos. Exact solutions of great theoretical interest include the Gödel universe (which opens up the intriguing possibility of time travel in curved spacetimes), the Taub-NUT solution (a model universe that is homogeneous, but anisotropic), and anti-de Sitter space (which has recently come to prominence in the context of what is called the Maldacena conjecture).
Given the difficulty of finding exact solutions, Einstein's field equations are also solved frequently by numerical integration on a computer, or by regarding small perturbations of exact solutions. In the field of numerical relativity, powerful computers are employed to simulate the geometry of spacetime and to solve Einstein's equations for interesting situations such as two colliding black holes. In principle, such methods may be applied to any system, given sufficient computer resources, and may address fundamental questions such as naked singularities. Approximate solutions may also be found by perturbation theories such as linearized gravity and its generalization, the post-Newtonian expansion, both of which were developed by Einstein. The latter gives a systematic approach to solving for the geometry of a spacetime that contains a distribution of matter that moves slowly compared with the speed of light. The expansion involves a series of terms; the first terms represent Newtonian gravity, whereas the later terms represent ever smaller corrections to Newton's theory due to general relativity. An extension of this expansion is the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism, which allows quantitative comparisons between the predictions of general relativity and alternative theories.
Muhammed Zafar Iqbal's daughter
Muhammed Zafar Iqbal's book about balck hole
Everyday physics is related to Newrtonian mechanics. Newtonian physics is applied when we drive our cars, get on the elevator, walk on the streets, even when
talk to others. Where there is force Newton rules. In the picture below some useful applications have been shown.
The earth is moving around the sun because of foce exerted by the sun on the earth. This force is creating a centripetal acceleration towards the sun every time. The earth always try to go stright but it changes its velocity every moment because of the acceleration. The moon always falls towards the earth but it tangential velocity keeps it on its orbit. The acceleration of the earth is the time rate of change of this tangential velocity.
Newtonian mehcanics can be applied to atoms also. When we study the apparent stability of electron ; that is, the electron's motion around the nucleus we apply usual laws of classical mechanics like kinetic energy and potential energy of mass particles.
The whole solar system and galaxy are kept stable by the gravitational pull of stars on planets, comets, and meteorites. Even every massive objects in the entire universe is being manoeuvred by gravitational force in large scale.
The principle of electromagnetism says that the relative velocity between a bar magnet and current coil will always produce a electromotive force(emf) around the coil. This idea of relative velocity inspired Einstein to develop his theory of relativity. In the igure we can see a formula of electric field relating to flux. This is known as the Faraday's law.
Faraday's law relates another law named Lenz's law. This law states when an electromotive force is created due to presence of magnetic field flux then the direction of electromotive force will be such as to oppose the change of flux inside the circuit.
Work in physics means force multiplied distance. We all perform various kinds of work in our daily lives. Machines perform mechanical works. All kinds of work has the same utility in physics. They are measured by a physical unit called jule. There is however fundamental difference between mechanical and thermodynamic work. Thermal energy can be conveterted into mechanical energy with the help of a thermodynamic system. But the price is very steep. The entropy is increasing continuously. No machined is able to convert total heat given to it into mechanical work with 100% efficieny. Some kind of loss of heat energy is inevitable. This increases the entropy of the environment and consequently of the universe.
We all know the laws of lever of Archimedes. It says the applied force in one arm is amplified in proportion to the ratio between the two lengths spanned around the pivot. Archimedes famously qouted "give me tall rod and place to stand outside the earth , I will displace the whole earth from its orbit."
One of the most important principle in classical physics is the conservation of energy. It sates that total energy of the system is always conserved. Energy can neither be destroyed nor created. It only transform from one form to another. In theory of relativity this statement is slightly modified . The correct statement is that total amount of energy and mass is conserved not individually. In general relativiy context it is expressed as saying that divergence of electromagnetic field tensor is zero.
Have you every wondered how a football player deviates a football in the air without any force ? Well this has a simple explanation in physics. The pressure difference between top and bootom place of the ball actually push the ball downward.
The most general accepted rule or law was that light travelled in straight lines. Fermet's proved that light travels in the path with the least time. That is, it chooses the path which takes the least time. In quantum electrodynamics , light however takes all possible paths from source to destination. It even includes the most absurd path which takes the light backward in time and then forward again. For more explanation you can visit this Sum over histories page.
Static electricity is another important branch of pure physics. It deals with electric charges that remain static and sationary. People knew long ago that friction creates some kind of force in some material. This material then attract other light objects around it. This phenomena could be explained using the principles of static electricity. So when two objects are rubbed against each other , electrons are stored in the vicinity of boundary of one materials that attract electron more. This creates negative electricity in one material and positive electricity in another material.
Hook's lawHooke's law is a law of physics, that states that the force (F) needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance x scales linearly with respect to that distance , x. That is: F = kx , where k is a constant factor characteristic of the spring: its stiffness, and x is small compared to the total possible deformation of the spring. The law is named after 17th-century British physicist Robert Hooke
Quantum Mechanics Muhammed Zafar Iqbal
Muhammed Zafar Iqbal Sir has written a book about quantum mechanics. I have read it many times. He stressed on mathematical aspects of the physics , which is very appreciable. But he stresses on the fundamental aspects very less. I have already described the fundamental issue with physics, named "the nature of the problem". We hardly teach our students this kind of philosophy of physics and mathematics, which to my view is very important. Let us get to the problem with quantum mechanics.
Schrodinger equation is a revolutionary leap in the field of physics. The total energy of any system is conserved. It is the sum of potential and kinetic energy, which is called hamiltonian in context of quantum mechanics.
Schodinger thought sub-atmic particles are waves so there must be a way to represent them with wave equation. This equation starts the development of wave-mechanics. We are dealing with waves not particles.
The wave nature of particles crteates all sorts or trouble and fuss. For example , it is only due to the wave nature of particle that we cannot pinpoint a particle at a specific point x. Because that would lead to an infinite spread in the momentum spectrum of the same particle. The more precise the position is the more uncertain the momentum is. This is called Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The exact formula is :
Due to uncertainty in the location of a particle like electron , it can appear outside of an energy barrier. In classical real this is impossible. The phenomena of a particle to tunnel through an energy barrier is known as quantum tunnelling.
Quantum cosmology is theoretical model based on the principle of quantum mechanics. It is the quantum theory of the universe. The wave function ψ of the entire universe is the sole subject matter of quantum cosmology. It states that universe can emerge from nothing taking a quantum leap from eternity. Big bang happened because there was a probability for happening such an event. It happened by chance. How the small universe expanded to form a gigantic universe also has interpretation in the context of quantum mechanics.
Firstly the total energy of the universe is zero. We can write the zero energy as a sum of any amount of positive energy and the same amount of negative energy. The negative energy can be in the form of anti matter and anti-gravity. The universe spontaneously arose from quantum vacuum. So initial energy was borrowed from this quantum foam or vacuum. There is always some probability that this the big bang uses this energy and equal amount of negative energy to give rise to zero energy containing universe. So the universe began with quantum fluctuation which is not actually nothing. Then there is a phenomena of quantum mechanics called quantum tunneling. The apparently small zero size universe funneled through an energy barrier to turn into our universe of mammoth size. This was not a coincidence but there was a chance and a non-zero probability that this would happen. There was a inflation after the big bang , which made this sudden increase of size possible. Complete explanation will involve inflationary cosmological model but the core ideas of quantum cosmology relate the principles of quantum mechanics as discussed above.
Pure mathematicsIMPLICATION AND FORMAL IMPLICATION
In the preceding chapter I endeavoured to present, briefly and
uncritically, all the data, in the shape of formally fundamental ideas and
propositions, that pure mathematics requires. In subsequent Parts I shall show
that these are all the data by giving definitions of the various mathematical
concepts—number, infinity, continuity, the various spaces of geometry and
motion. In the remainder of Part I, I shall give indications, as best I can, of the
philosophical problems arising in the analysis of the data, and of the directions
in which I imagine these problems to be probably soluble. Some logical
notions will be elicited which, though they seem quite fundamental to
logic, are not commonly discussed in works on the subject; and thus problems
no longer clothed in mathematical symbolism will be presented for the
consideration of philosophical logicians.
Two kinds of implication, the material and the formal, were found to be
essential to every kind of deduction. In the present chapter I wish to examine
and distinguish these two kinds, and to discuss some methods of attempting
to analyse the second of them.
In the discussion of inference, it is common to permit the intrusion of a psychological element, and to consider our acquisition of new knowledge by its means. But it is plain that where we validly infer one proposition from another, we do so in virtue of a relation which holds between the two propositions whether we perceive it or not: the mind, in fact, is as purely receptive in inference as common sense supposes it to be in perception of sensible objects. The relation in virtue of which it is possible for us validly to infer is what I call material implication. We have already seen that it would be a vicious circle to define this relation as meaning that if one proposition is
true, then another is true, for if and then already involve implication. The relation holds, in fact, when it does hold, without any reference to the truth or falsehood of the propositions involved. But in developing the consequences of our assumptions as to implication, we were led to conclusions which do not by any means agree with what is commonly held concerning implication, for we found that any false proposition implies every proposition and any true proposition is implied by every proposition. Thus propositions are formally like a set of lengths each of which is one inch or two, and implication is like the relation “equal to or less than” among such lengths. It would certainly not be commonly maintained that “2 + 2 = 4” can be deduced from “Socrates is a man”, or that both are implied by “Socrates is a triangle”. But the reluctance to admit such implications is chiefly due, I think, to preoccupation with formal implication, which is a much more familiar notion, and is really before the mind, as a rule, even where material implication is what is explicitly mentioned. In inferences from “Socrates is a man”, it is customary not to consider the philosopher who vexed the Athenians, but to regard Socrates merely as a symbol, capable of being replaced by any other man; and only a vulgar prejudice in favour of true propositions stands in the way of replacing Socrates by a number, a table or a plum-pudding. Nevertheless, wherever, as in Euclid, one particular proposition is deduced from another, material implication is involved, though as a rule the material implication may be regarded as a particular instance of some formal implication, obtained by giving some constant value to the variable or variables involved in the said formal implication. And although, while relations are still regarded with the awe caused by unfamiliarity, it is natural to doubt whether any such relation as implication is to be found, yet, in virtue of the general principles laid down in Section C of the preceding chapter, there must be a relation holding between nothing except propositions, and holding between any two propositions of which either the first is false or the second true. Of the various equivalent relations satisfying these conditions, one is to be called implication, and if such a notion seems unfamiliar, that does not suffice to prove that it is illusory.
Law of thermodynamics
A briefer history of time by S. Hawking
A brief history of time by S. Hawking
Grand Design by Stephen Hawking
perihelion of mercury by Feynman