"Science is the source of all other knowledge"
SCIENCE THEORY DEFITION
"Mathematics is about numbers and physics is all about mathematical functions"
crazy Quantum mechanics + beautiful relativity = Universe (including us?)
Theory of everything
Theory of everything is the ultimate theory of physics , that should describe all physical aspects and occurrences in a consistent manner. Such theory , if it is
needs to unify all fundamental forces of nature. String theory is the best candidate for theory of everything. It is
a theoretical framework that have merged quantum mechanics with
theory of relativity.
+ = Everything
Readers from all over the world , have you a feeling that you are bad at mathematics? Do not fear mathematics. Once I was also a victim. You can now conquer mathematics easily. The secret is behind logic. Logical ideas alone can define mathematics.
I will state russel's paradox first. If you understand this you can safely assume that you have a good mathematical sense .
Suppose R is a set of all sets that are not members of themselves. Now is this set R is a member of itself or not? If it is a member of itself then it is one of the sets which are not members of themseves. So it is not member of itself. And if this set R is not member of itself then by definition it is member of itself. So in either way we come to a contradiction!
This was Russell famous paradox. All mathematics are basically logical deductions. You can follow my website for more logical analysis of mathematics.
"Welcome to the world of the scolars. I understand why you are here. You do not want to understand physics and mathematics. You have been here because of destiny. You are like me. You want to understand who you are , where you have come from and where you are going to be. All these questions are very unnerving. Once I was very unsettled by these questions. Now I know myself and answers to these questions. I am not afraid anymore. Science holds the key to every secret. Once you understand science your life will never be the same. Think why you are reading this. Why all the thoughts are coming into your mind? How is it possible that without a theory of everything all this is happening ? We are very part of the cosmos as a whole. All the mysteries lie in quantumn mechanics and theory of relativity. Try to read my articles in the website and understand them. Make your life worth living".
The main purpose of this website is to give some basic ideas of classical physics, quantum mechanics, relativity and quantum field theory for those who wants to become a science major or philosopher in science. Theories are at the heart of physical sciences and mathematics. Here most of the major and interesting theories of physics have been discussed. Those who want to understand popular science books will get help from this website. Some electrical and electronics engineering concepts have also been given for undergraduates of electrical engineering. This website is not supposed to include everything. Those who are very curious to understand scientific theories and spacetime physics in somewhat non technical way, will find this website very usefull. So far a little subject matters have been included. In the future more and more topics will be added. Many topics of Mathematics and its applications are also demonstrated in a simple manner. I have said, all physics is interpreted by mathematical functions. The principle aim will be to justify this claim.
Theories are basically mathematical descriptions. A theory is like a boat. How well the boat floats gives the soundness of the theory. The better the boat floats, the better the theory is. As long as a theory is able to describe particular phenomena , it is accepted as valid. But it can never be taken as irrefutable and absolute. For a better theory can replace the old one. Such is the case with Newton's universal law of gravitation
Quantum Field TheoryFeynman's sum over histories | S-matrix
Theory of relativityRelativity made simple | Special theory of relativity | General theory of relativity | Tensor calculus | Hamiltonian mechanics | Field equation
Quantum mechanicsSchrodinger equation | Matrix mechanics | Dirac equation
In quantum mechanics operators are replacements for classical quantities like positions and momenta. They are some kind of functions too.
all the physics in one equation (excluding string theory)
This is the equation which is derived in analogy with Feynman's path integral equation.
There are seven ideas that shook the universe. These are
1. Newtonian mechanics
2. Energy and entropy
3. quantum theory
4. conservation principles
5. copernican astronomy
Newtonian mechanics made it possible to develop the first mathematical model of the universe. It was a great revolution in science. Everything in science is founded upon principles of newtonian mechanics. It is hard to imagine anything which does not correspond to Newton's law. Quantum mechanics and relativity are developed to account for the phenomena which classical newtonian mechanics fails to explain. But in the limit both theories reduce to newtonian framework. Application of Newton's law is almost everywhere from rocket science to automobile engineering. We have developed a innate sense of the principle of newtonian mechanics in us. We move and throw objects as if we know the position in advance.
on the other hand we can not predict the outcome of quantum mechanics experiment precisely. Principles of quantum mechanics violate our common sense. It is developed using logic and mathematics which defy our intuition. Suppose you throw a electron in the wall and on the wall there are several objects placed. Then there is always some chance that the electron will hit those objects at the same time. This is the kind of weirdness our commonsense can not grasp.There are other bizzare consequences of quantum mechanics like entanglement and quantum tunneling. According to Quantum mechanics spooky action at a distance is possible. This faster than light communication had disturbed Einstein too much. According to theory of relativity nothing can travel faster than light and causality is not violated. Quantum mechanics have certainly made many phenomena non causal.
Free willAnother matter that is of great debate is the problem of free will. According to principles of classical mechanics everything is predictable. Our actions are not governed by us. Every will and volition have previous causes and that cause in turns has another cause. Thus we certainly do not have any free will. But in quantum mechanical world nothing is predictable with absolute certainly and we might possess free will after all. We have freedom to make our own decision. According to classical physics we have only one of two alternatives (yes and no) in our mind. Our choice is predetermined with yes or no option. But according to quantum principles we have both yes and no options , which exist simultaneously in our mind. This is the principle of Quantum superposition. Scientists have been able to find the exact location of the brain where this quantum superposition seems to take place. This part of the brain is microtubules. There is a close connection between our consciousness and quantum mechanics. Both are mysterious and thus both may be the same.
Another bizzare consequences of quantum mechanics is quatum tunnelling. A classical object can not pass through a rigid barrier but an electron has always some chance to be found on the other side of the same barrier.
Theory of relativity
Space time is a four-dimensional hausdroff differentiable manifold on which a metric tensor is imposed and the metric tensor gives rise to geodesics so that particles experiencing no forces except gravity travel along such geodesics.
This the core idea of General theory of relativity. Unification of space and time was the ultimate result of the theory of relativity. We need four coordinates to specify an event in space-time. Events are the four dimensional analog of points became the fundamental entity in relativity. Distance between two events is space-time interval. Theory of relativity has modified physics to a great extent. It has a lot of philosophical consequences as well. Question now arises whether there is any distinction between past, present and future. Time is relative according to this new theory. All the events that are simultaneous to one observer can be not simultaneous to any other observer moving relative to the other observer. Abosolute distinction between past and the future is no longer valid. Topological features which are the same for one observer can be separated by spatio-temporal relationship.
Electrical and electronics EngineeringPower Engineering | Telecommunication | Control System Engineering | Electronics | Fundamentals of EEE | Digital signal processing | Digital Filters | Maxwell equations | Differential equation and calculus
Mathematics is the language of nature. It is hard to define mathematics. In general it is the study of change, numbers and shapes. Mathematics consists of various branches like arthmetic, geometry, topology, calculus and many more. Science can not progress without mathematics. This is so obvious fact that needs not be mentioned. Mathematics , in a.certain sense , an exact science. We all accept the mathematical theorems and truth because we can prove those. we all accept 2+2 = 4. Mathematics is always flawless. That is what mathematicians thought every time. But Kurt Godel gave a death blow to mathematics by claiming that no mathematical system is complete. Axiomatic systems are necessary incomplete. That means there will always be some statement within the system , whose truth can not be proven using the system. This was very frustrating idea for the mathematical society and no one has yet been able to refute Godel's claim. This is known as the Godel's first incompleteness theorem. This theorem is kind of related to the "liar paradox" of usual language. Suppose there is a sentence " he is lying". Now if the sentence is true then when he says that he is lying , he is indeed lying. That means he is telling the truth. The sentence's truth can not be determined as we come to a contradictory situation.
Miscellaneous pages Algebra | coordinate geometry | Topology for dummies | Symmetry | Bertrand Russell philosophy | Sir issac newton | Topology for dummies | Albert Einstein | Artificial intelligence | Leonhard Euler | Carl Friedrich Gauss | Number theory
The best thing about science is that you can apply it to your very own life
this website is about theoretical physics and mathematics, theory of relativity general, theories of phyiscs